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Sacagawea was a teenager thought to be approximately The following are biographical vignettes of each of the 33 permanent party members. All the men were hand-picked; the two officers for their leadership abilities, and their detachment for frontier, hunting, woodcutting, specialized craftmanship, and interpreting skills. Those who distinguished themselves during the mission for their more than routine contributions, or were unique members, are treated individually.

A total of 12 who made no special mark are listed collectively, with their individual activities noted in appropriate journal entries. The members of the expedition began their journey as a wild bunch of hard drinking, brawling, and insubordinate rowdies. By 7 April , the day the Corps of Northwestern Discovery pulled out of Fort Mandan, Lewis described his men as enjoying "a most perfect harmony. The jolly men of Lewis and Clark danced their way into history - a fascinating look behind the "big scenes" of America's intriguing Corps of Discovery.

He expanded his travels creating over paintings. Few of their discoveries seized more interest, curiosity, even controversy from the American public. And certainly no others demanded more care than the six live specimens—including one prairie dog—that endured a four-month, 4,mile cage-bound odyssey to Washington City and Philadelphia. Louis, unlike towns which evolved gradually from a crossroads or farming community, began life as a planned village, its purpose to serve as a mercantile center for the fur trade. In and in the presence of the Lewis and Clark expedition the little village shed it ambiguous Spanish-French parentage and took on full American citizenship.

Lewis and Clark usually distributed flags at more or less formal councils with the chiefs and headmen of the tribes they encountered—one flag for each tribe or independent band.

Two years after the conclusion of the historic Lewis and Clark expedition, York and his enslaver, the Virginia-born patrician William Clark, were at odds. The journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition contain references to some two dozen occasions when the men turned to music for recreation and to celebrate holidays.

William Clark

It also served an important function in some of their diplomatic negotiations with Indian tribes. He was the first literate traveler to cross the North American continent north of Mexico, beating Meriwether Lewis and William Clark by nearly 12 years. The idea that the Americans consulted Mackenzie's account is reinforced by literary echoes found in the Lewis and Clark journals.

Moulton 13 vols. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, You are here Home Popular Meriwether Lewis William Clark Army was so small in that no complete uniforms survive. This reproduction portrays a captain in the full-dress uniform of the 1st U. Infantry Regiment, to which Lewis belonged. Infantry captain's uniform, bicorne hat [not shown]. Reproduction by Timothy Pickles, Steel barrel, iron fittings, German silver plates, tiger maple stock. A Plains Indian warrior relied on personal power in battle, and his dress incorporated symbols of his spirit visions, his tribal identity, and his past deeds.

The leader of a war party often wore a painted shirt that detailed his war record. On such shirts made from animal skins, the contours of the pelt were left intact in the belief that the animal would lend its qualities to the wearer. The most powerful shirts were fringed with locks of human hair provided by relatives and supporters to represent the man's responsibilities to his relations. This shirt, probably Blackfeet, has buffalo-track symbols on the neck flap that evoke the power of the bison to aid the warrior in battle. War shirt, Antelope skin, quill work.

Plains Indian men wore painted skin robes that told of their achievements. This image of Shoshone Chief Washakie's war robe shows a series of diagrammatic battle scenes. Here, events happen not in a landscape but in a symbolic realm of deeds.


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Depictions of his enemies are not individualized, but are instead given costumes, hairstyles, or equipment that represent tribal affiliation, society membership, and past deeds. Warriors are sometimes represented by disembodied guns or arrows. Washakie war robe Shoshone , pre Paint on deer hide. Copyprint of artifact. The print, based on a painting by Benjamin West, shows the wounded general dying just as a messenger brings news that the enemy is retreating.

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In the moment of both victory and death, Wolfe achieves transcendent glory. His uplifted eyes suggest both sacrifice for the nation and triumph over death—not through faith but through fame. This was an idealized image to which military men of Lewis and Clark's generation aspired. William Woollett, after a painting by Benjamin West. The Death of General Wolfe. Coyote, the mythic trickster of the Plains Indians, was the protector of the scouts who spied on the enemy for a war party. This nineteenth-century Teton headdress from the Standing Rock Reservation in North Dakota was meant to summon and symbolize Coyote's craftiness.

Coyote headdress Teton Sioux , nineteenth century.

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Pelt, feathers, canvas, wool, hawk bell. The spontoon, a long wooden shaft with a spear at one end, became popular with the American army during the Revolutionary War. Although it was required equipment that signified an officer's rank, these pikes were commonly abandoned for more practical weapons in battle. Lewis used his as a walking stick, a grizzly-bear spear, and a gun rest, but never to rally troops in battle. The origins of the gorget can be traced to the chivalric armor. American army officers wore these ceremonial insignia high on the chest.

Iron, wood. Richard Rugg. Gorget, London, ca. Courtesy of William H. Guthman Collection To wear a bear claw necklace was a mark of distinction for a warrior or a chief, and the right to wear it had to be earned. These powerful symbols were a part of the culture of the Great Lakes, Plains, and Plateau tribes. These claws are ornamented with beads about the thick end near which they are pierced through their sides and strung on a throng of dressed leather and tyed about the neck.

It is esteemed by them an act of equal celebrity the killing one of these bear or an enimy. Animal claw necklace Teton Sioux , mid-nineteenth century. Bear claws, hide. When he instructed the Corps in their approach to cataloging the country's flora, Jefferson again set the pattern for subsequent explorations. Jefferson, however, was not purely motivated by science; plants thought to have medicinal properties, like tobacco and sassafras, were important to the U. As the Napoleonic Wars swept Europe and affected exports to the United States, there was a call to reduce America's dependence on foreign medicine and find substitutes on native soil.

Indians and Europeans had been exchanging knowledge about curing and health for three centuries, yet they still held very different beliefs. Indian doctors focused on the patient's relationship to the animate world around him. Euro-American doctors saw the body as a mechanical system needing regulation. Meriwether Lewis, instructed by America's foremost physician Dr. Benjamin Rush, University of Pennsylvania botanist Benjamin Barton, and his own mother, a skilled herbalist, was to serve as the Corps doctor, but William Clark also became adept in treating various illnesses. Though Clark rejected Indian explanations, he often turned to Indian techniques when members of his own party became ill.

Lewis and Clark were not persuaded by Indian explanations of why illness occurred but often used Indian cures in preference to their own. The Corps began its journey stocked with traditional western medicinal treatments and tools.

Lewis And Clark Expedition Facts

Lewis used lancets to let out blood in such dangerous conditions as heat exhaustion and pelvic inflammation, and tourniquets to stop blood flow. Bleeding was thought to relieve congestion in internal organs. Lewis originally thought he would need three syringes for enemas but settled for one. There is no further mention of its use. Laxatives, derived from plant sources, were also used to purge the body of impurities. Tourniquet, early nineteenth century, brass, leather, iron. Tortoise shell, steel. Pewter, wood. Rush restricted his advice to practical hints for maintaining health in the field—some of it unwelcome like using alcohol for cleaning feet instead of for drinking.

Many Americans did not trust professional medicine and instead used folk cures like these written down by Clark after the expedition. Many folk cures originally came from Indian sources. Benjamin Rush ca. Cures for toothache and "whooping cough," early nineteenth century.